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While waiting for final arrangements for a two-year post-doctoral fellowship in Australia, Eggan resumed field study among the Hopi at Oraibi and Second Mesa, Arizona.It was at this time, in the winter of 1933-1934, that Eggan began an association with John Collier and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
In contrast, American anthropologists, including Eggan's teachers Fay-Cooper Cole and Robert Redfield, focused on processes of diachronic culture change.He chaired the Department of Anthropology from 1948 to 1952 and again from 1961 to 1963. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Anthropology in 1963.Eggan is credited with having achieved a synthesis between the British and American schools of anthropological study.Fay-Cooper Cole had worked there under the auspices of the Field Museum in 1907-1908, and wanted Eggan to record changes in Tinguian culture since the time of his original research.In the late 1930s Eggan developed his field material from North America and published on the Hopi, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Choctaw. Radcliffe-Brown left the University of Chicago for Oxford in 1937. Papers contain a wide variety of materials and media including correspondence, original manuscripts, teaching materials, field notes pertaining to Eggan's research among Native American groups and in the Philippines, microfilm, photographs, slides, and audio recordings.
The papers date from 1870-1991 and cover all phases of Eggan's career as an anthropologist, documenting his earliest graduate and post-graduate field research, his work as teacher and administrator at the University of Chicago, his research and writing on native North American and Philippine cultures, and his extensive professional connections with many of the leading social scientists of the twentieth century.
Eggan united these two perspectives by attending to both structure and history using a method of analysis he called "controlled comparison." Based on results achieved by this method, Eggan's most important publication, Social Organization of the Western Pueblos, hypothesized that variations in the social structures of linguistically and culturally related Native American groups were the result of the varied historical circumstances experienced by each group.
By applying this same method in his later work on the impact of modernity and Western culture on indigenous Philippine groups, Eggan formulated an inverse corollary: that differing social structures cause different linguistic and cultural groups to respond differently to the same historical circumstances.
He was promoted to assistant professor in 1940 and associate professor in 1948.
Not long after his promotion to associate professor he received a full professorship.
His master's thesis was entitled "An Experimental Study of Attitudes toward Race and Nationality." From 1928 to 1930 he taught psychology, sociology, and history at Wentworth Junior College and Military Academy in Missouri.